Loss and Damage
Climate change has a wide range of effects on the environment and ecosystems, from increases in average temperature and sea level, changes in precipitation patterns, increased forest fires, and ocean acidification. These changes are localized and vary from region to region. Adaptation measures include planting mangroves, preserving coral reefs as natural breakwaters to protect coastal areas, improving local irrigation to prepare for droughts, and shifting to crop species that can withstand higher temperatures. While there is a need to support these adaptation measures, scientists around the world are pointing out the limits of adaptation, which will become impossible if emissions are not reduced, and the need to address the “loss and damage” caused by climate change.